This is the first prayer of your day at dawn. Islamic tradition distinguishes two different times for dawn: when the first light appears at the horizon, rather vertical (like the “tail of a wolf” as tradition says), and then, next first light disappears, once the light of early day spreads horizontally over the horizon.

The very first dawn is called “Subh Kadhib” or “Fajr-al-Mustateel” and the next “Subh Sadiq” or “Fajr-al-Mustatir “.Fajr is to be prayed at the next dawn, Subh Sadiq. However, once we explain below, adjustments have to be designed for higher latitudes where the glow of your day never disappears in summer and never appears in winter.

Zuhr or Duhur:

The midday prayer just as sunlight declines after having reached its highest position in the sky (zenith). Zuhr is prayed five full minutes after zenith.


The mid-afternoon prayer. The azan prayer times with this prayer is set according to along the shadow of a stick planted in the ground. Based on the major schools of jurisprudence in Islam: Maliki, Shafi’I, Hanbali, Hanafi and Ja’afriyah (Shia), along the shadow with respect to that of the stick is calculated differently (factors varying from one to two). We give below the details of those various options. All these traditions are legitimate and worthy of respect. We leave the option of the institution to the user.



The prayer at sunset. However, physical factors such as for instance refraction and also material factors just like the height of a building in a city or the spread with this city lead us to correct the time with this prayer 3 minutes following the theoretical time of sunset as it appears in newspapers. The Shia tradition sets the Maghrib prayer 17 minutes following the theoretical setting of the sun. Within our tables, we’ve retained only the first option: 3 minutes after sunset.



The night prayer at dusk. Just in terms of Fajr, Islamic tradition distinguishes twice of dusk, both called “Shafaq “.After sunset, the sky is first ablaze with a red colour. This really is “Shafaq al Ahmar “.Later, the red colour disappears, leaving room for a whiteness of the sky. This really is “Shafaq al Abyad “.The duration of those phases increases with altitude. The major schools of Islam fix the Isha prayer either at the disappearance of Shafaq al Ahmar or at the disappearance of Shafaq al Abyad. Both traditions are legitimate and, like for Asr, we leave the option to the user. However, in terms of Fajr, adjustments are required for Isha at higher latitudes when Shafaq al Abyad rarely disappears in summer. Such cases we could either use a variety of Shafaq al Ahmar and Shafaq al Abyad called “Shafaq General” or use other methods that have the consensus of the Islamic community. We shall explain these methods in the following.

Let us note one last point: whereas the azan prayer times for Zuhr, Asr and Maghrib are rather well defined in the Holy Koran and in the Hadiths, and thus allow a defined mathematical formulation, such is false with Fajr and Isha. The description of both in the Koran and in the Hadiths leaves a margin of interpretation, and hence for different formulations. Because of this, we take excellent care in what follows to describe the method that people have adopted to be able to calculate these two moments of prayer specially.